A solution is homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The proportion of the constituents of the solution can be varied within certain limits. The solutions comprising the two components are called binary solutions.
That component of a solution which is in the same physical state (.e., Solid, liquid or gas) as the solution is called solvent, and the other component is called solute.
If both the components are in the same state, the component which is present in larger proportions is called solvent and the one which is present in minor proportions is called solute.
Classification of solutions
Depending on the physical states of the solute and the solvent, solutions can be classified into various types.
When the solvent is a gas and the solute is a solid or a liquid, the resultant mixture becomes heterogeneous. All other solutions being homogeneous are called true solutions. The other two types of mixtures being heterogeneous are called suspensions.
Examples: Fog, mist and dust particles in air.
The study of solutions is generally confined to the solutions of a solid solute in a liquid solvent.
In most of the cases, water is taken as the solvent since it can dissolve a wide range of chemical compounds. Those solutions in which water is taken as the solvent are called aqueous solutions.
Apart from water, other liquids can also be taken as solvents. Examples of such solvents are alcohol, petrol, ether, benzene, etc. Those solutions in which a liquid other than water is taken as a solvent are called non – aqueous solutions.
Aqueous solution can be further classified on the basis of relative proportions of a solute in the solution.
A solution in which there is a small amount of solute dissolved in a given mass of a solvent is called dilute solution.
A solution containing a relatively large amount of a salute dissolved in a given mass of a solvent is called concentrated solution.
The process of dissolving a substance in the given solvent is called dissolution. The amount of solute dissolved in as definite quantity of solvent depend upon the nature of the solute well mature of the solvent.
The maximum amount of a particular solute m grants, which can dissolve in of polenta given temperature is called solubility.
Solubility = Mass of solute/Mass of solvent ×100
Solubility of copper sulphate in water at 20 ° C is 20.7 g and Solubility of potassium chloride in at 20°c is 34g.
A given solution may or may not contain the maximum amount of our ter dissolving capacity of a given solution depends on the amount of the solute already sentiment the solution. On the basis of the capacity of the solution to dissolve certain amounts of tout eune the solutions are classified into three types as discussed hereunder.
A solution which contains the maximum amount of the solute that can be dissolved in the at a given temperature is called saturated solution at that particular temperament to no longer dissolve any more solute under the given condition.
The solution containing lesser amount of the solute than the saturated solution at a given temperature is called an unsaturated solution. In an uncaturated solution, the solvent dissolving more amount of the solute at that particular temperature.
If solution holds more solute than the saturated solution at a give temperature, it is called supersaturate solution.
When more solute is made to dissolve in saturated solution by an interne oling it downy without coming any disturbances (like sulking, then the campo mon atote that the animated solution.